Three-dimensional (3D) technology is a major scientific breakthrough. Depth sensing technology that enhances the camera’s capabilities for face and object recognition. The process of capturing the length, width, and height of real-world objects with greater clarity and depth of detail than can be achieved using a variety of techniques. 3D technology offers a unique advancement in the way we perceive and approach daily activities.
3D is a real game changer as manufacturers are busy integrating these new advancements into consumer products like mobile phones. 3D sensing technology mimics the human visual system using optical technologies that facilitate the emergence and integration of augmented reality, artificial intelligence (AI) and the Internet of Things (IoT). This creates unique opportunities in consumer applications.
Many of the key technologies driving the evolution of 3D sensing have their pros and cons. Designing these new systems requires developing high-quality sensors and efficient algorithms that can leverage new and existing technologies. For example, Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (VCSELs) are becoming the primary light source technology for 3D sensing and can replace LEDs or edge emitting laser diodes because of their simplicity, narrow spectrum, and temperature stability. The three technologies used for 3D sensing are stereoscopic vision, structured light patterns, and time-of-flight.
Although many mid-to-large smartphones are now available that integrate 3D sensors for applications ranging from 3D facial recognition to avatar creation and photo enhancement, 3D sensing is also becoming important for autonomous vehicles, where LiDAR is the primary device for pedestrians and pedestrians. Vehicle detection to estimate distance. Another area where 3D sensors play an important role is Industry 4.0 and manufacturing, where their combination with AI has become a fundamental element of quality control on production lines, unmanned transport systems or random bin picking.
Assistive technologies also benefit from 3D sensing, such as the analysis of sports situations and the monitoring of natural and manufactured structures for disaster prevention and restoration operations.
The aforementioned applications are just a few examples of situations where 3D sensing is becoming increasingly relevant and in this special issue innovative sensors, dedicated hardware and related applications.